L’ostéopathie pour les troubles de la posture

L’ostéopathie pour les troubles de la posture.La phylogénèse de l’être humain (le passage d’une position quadrupède à une position bipède) a nécessité une adaptation importante du squelette de l’homme, notamment pour être en mesure de lutter correctement contre la force gravitationnelle. La posture est définie par Richard et Orsal (2007) comme l’agencement de différents segments corporels à un moment donné.  L’équilibre de la posture dépend de plusieurs systèmes : visuel, vestibulaire (l’oreille interne) et neuro-musculaire (les terminaisons nerveuses dans les ligaments, les tendons et les fascias, dont beaucoup au niveau du pied) (Richard et Orsal, 2007).

Il existe plusieurs pathologies de la posture qui sont catégorisées dans le domaine médicale et qui, selon le degré de gravité de celles-ci, pourraient même nécessiter une chirurgie. La plus connue est certainement la scoliose, qui est une déviation latérale de la colonne accompagnée d’une rotation des vertèbres. La maladie de Scheuermann, quant à elle, est caractérisée par une accentuation de la cyphose dorsale. Dans les deux cas cités ci-hauts, il peut y avoir des changements de formes des vertèbres (Association de la scoliose du Québec [ASQ], n.d.). Il existe aussi plusieurs autres troubles posturaux qui ne présentent pas de changements morphologiques des vertèbres et qui sont réversibles dans une certaine mesure. Dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’ostéopathie peut être une approche de choix pour soulager les maux et améliorer la dynamique posturale du rachis (Vachon, 2007; Desmarais, 2009).

Qui plus est, les troubles de la posture s’installent progressivement et peuvent entrainer des tensions musculaires au cou et au dos, des maux de têtes, des douleurs aux épaules, aux poignets et aux mains, de la fatigue et même des troubles systémiques des sphères digestive, pulmonaire, cardiaque et neurologique (ASQ, n.d.).  Les troubles posturaux ont souvent plusieurs causes : des traumatismes physiques, des déviations congénitales et des mauvaises postures de travail, etc. En analysant la posture, le corps révèle souvent l’histoire de ces stress. Ces blessures laissent une empreinte que le corps doit adapter pendant plusieurs années. Éventuellement, l’accumulation de ces stress entrainera des troubles posturaux et des symptômes s’en suivront.

En ce sens, comme le dit le dicton : mieux vaut prévenir que guérir. Plus les troubles de posture sont pris en charge tôt, même avant l’apparition de douleurs, plus les chances d’évolution vers la douleur et des dysfonctions plus sévères seront faibles. À titre préventif, il peut être indiqué d’évaluer les bébés, les enfants et les adolescents pendant les phases de croissance afin de traiter au plus vite la moindre déviation du squelette ou les asymétries musculaires. Aussi, si vous observez chez vos proches une déviation de la tête vers le coté, une épaule plus élevée, une inégalité du bassin ou une asymétrie de l’ouverture des pieds, conseillez-leur une consultation en ostéopathie.  Durant l’évaluation de la posture, l’ostéopathe observe les courbures, évalue la mobilité des vertèbres – particulièrement des vertèbres pivots – puis analyse les adaptations musculaires, neurologiques et viscérales. Après une analyse de ce que le corps présente, une approche stratégique et des techniques appropriées seront utilisées pour aider le corps à retrouver un meilleur équilibre postural et une meilleure capacité d’adaptation dans la gravité. L’objectif du traitement ostéopathique est toujours de rétablir la mobilité des structures afin qu’elles puissent correctement accomplir leur tâche, qui dans ce cas, est de lutter contre la gravité. Conjointement au traitement ostéopathique,  des étirements et des exercices de renforcements spécifiques aideront à maintenir les gains et à les consolider.

Biographie :

  • Association de la scoliose du Québec. (n.d.). Brochure de l’association de la scoliose du Québec. Récupéré le 12 septembre 2016 de http://www.polymtl.ca/cigo-grdms/PDFs/ASQFrancais.pdf
  • Desmarais, M. (2009). Effet de la normalisation myofasciale ostéopathique des attaches fermes de la dure-mère rachidienne sur la posture. Mémoire de fin d’études en ostéopathie présenté au Collège d’Études Ostéopathiques de Montréal.
  • Kapandji, A. I. (2007). Physiologie articulaire, volume 3, 6e édition. Paris : Éditions Maloine.
  • Richard, D. et Orsal, D. (2007). Neurophysiologie – Organisation et fonctionnement du système nerveux, 3e édition. France : Éditions Dunod.
  • Vachon, A. (2007). La technique des trois diaphragmes et son influence sur l’analyse biomécanique de la posture. Mémoire de fin d’études en ostéopathie présenté au Collège d’Études Ostéopathiques de Montréal.

L’ostéopathie pour les troubles de la posture.

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